A manuscript must have (Download Manuscript Template)
- a title (not more than 13 words)
- an abstract (not more than 300 words)
- an introduction (in which literature is reviewed and discussed)
- a methodology section
- appendices (if any)
All sources that were cited or consulted in the preparation of your paper must be fully identified and arranged alphabetically on a separate page placed at the end of your paper. This page is titled as References.
Citation and referencing samples
Standard Citation: One author
According to Froggatt (2003) a growing body of research ...
A growing body of research is emerging on palliative care (Froggatt, 2003).
Standard Citation: Two authors
Jowett and Shanley (1993) observed during interviews that patients responded……
It was observed during the interview that patients responded well to drug therapy (Jowett & Shanley, 1993).
Standard Citation: Three to five authors
Herth, Korner, and McGee (2004) documented their experiences as patients…..
Their experiences as patients was well documented (Herth, Korner, & McGee, 2004)
Six and more authors.
Herth et al. (2004) stated that…..
Narrative interviews were conducted over two weeks (Benzein et al., 2001).
In References list
Book with one author
S. R. Waxman (ed.), Weaving a lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Book with two or more authors
Ruhi, ?, & Zeyrek, D (1989). Children’s understanding of Mission Hills, CA: Glencoe Publishing Co.
In text, use the following parenthetical citation each time a work with multiple (three or more) authors is cited: (Brown et al., 1989).
Moses, D. D., & Goldie, T. (Eds.). (1992). An anthology of Canadian Native literature in English. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.
Book, specific edition
Rosenthal, R. (1987). Procedures for social research (Rev. ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Book, corporate author, government agency or author as publisher
American Psychiatric Association. (1986). Twiddling your thumbs: Its underlying causes and its long-term effects. Washington, DC: Author.
Book, no author or editor
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary. (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Story, article, chapter, or poem in a book
Frost, Robert. (1979). Departmental. In William Harmon (Ed.), Oxford book of American light verse (pp. 280-281). New York: Oxford University Press.
Pamphlet or brochure, corporate author
Just Say No Foundation. (1992). Saving our youth. (9th ed.) [Brochure]. Washington, DC: Author.
Encyclopedia article (author not identified)
Calculus. (1994). In The world book encyclopedia (volume 3, pp. 21-25). Toronto: World Book.
Wood, C. (1999, December 20). The vanishing border. Maclean’s, 20-23.
Miller, J. (1995). Trick or treat? The autobiography of the question. The English Quarterly, 27 (3), 22-26.
Article in a daily newspaper (author cited)
Jaimet, K. (2001, March 26). Environment Canada can’t enforce own Laws. The Star Phoenix, p. A1.
CD-ROM encyclopedia article
Charlottetown Conference. (1999). The Canadian encyclopedia world Edition 2000. [Computer Software]. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.
Electronic copy of a journal or newspaper article retrieved from a database
Kent, A. (2003, April 21). Chaos in war's wake: Iraq desperately needs law, order and aid. Maclean's, 28-30. Retrieved May 9, 2003, from Infotrac database.
On-line encyclopedia article
Horsman, R. War of 1812. (2001). World book online Retrieved March 27, 2001, from
Stand-alone Internet document, no author identified, no date
Natural diet - survey results. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2003, from http://members.aol.com/abywood/www/gsur_toc.htm
Internet, professional site
Rigby, Dr. K. (2002, December 15). Bullying in schools and what to do about it. Retrieved May 12, 2003, from http://www.education.unisa.edu.au/bullying/
When an Internet document comprises multiple pages (i.e., different sections have different URLs), provide a URL that links to the home (or entry) page for the document.
Films and Videotapes
Weir, P.B. (Producer), & Harrison, B.F. (Director). (1996). Levels of consciousness [Videotape]. Boston, MA: Filmways.
Television and Radio Programs
Keillor, G. (Producer), & Smith, L. (Director). (1998, October 2). A prairie home companion [Radio Program]. St. Louis, MO: KMOX.
Single episode from a television series
Hall, B. (Writer), & Bender, J. (Director). (1991). The rules of the game [Television series episode]. In J. Sander (Producer), I’ll fly away. New York: New York Broadcasting Company.
Recording by artist who is also writer
McLachlan, S. (1997). Building a mystery. On Surfacing [CD]. Vancouver: Nettwerk Productions.
Simons, R. (2001, June). Genetically modified foods. Lecture presented at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK.
Personal Communication (e.g., letter, e-mail, interview, telephone conversation)
Personal communications are not recoverable data. They are not included on the reference list. Cite personal communications in text only: B. Baker (personal communication, March 2, 2000) (B. Baker, personal communication, March 2, 2000).
Recording by artist other than writer
Hirsch, F. & Rose, W. (no date). A blossom fell. [Recorded by D. Krall]. On All for you [CD]. New York: GRP Records. (1996).
In text citations, include side and band or track numbers:
"A blossom fell" (Hirsch, F. & Rose, W., 1996, track 11).
For further information please visit http://www.apastyle.org/
or for sample References page at:
Submission Preparation Checklist
As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
- The manuscript has not been previously published. It has not been under consideration elsewhere and will not be submitted elsewhere for consideration before the evaluation process in JCLAD is completed.
- I/We, author and all co-authors, hereby declare that the manuscript is an outcome of an original research and I/we abide with the ethical rules that are required for this research.
- Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
- The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
- The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
- If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed; all the names, affiliation and any remark which would reveal the identity of the author(s) have been deleted from the manuscript.
- The submission file is in Open Office or Microsoft Word file format.